|1.1 Explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection|
It is the employee’s responsibility to stick to company and local policies and procedures. communicable diseases which are notifiable, must be brought to the attention of the local authority, or If I have any concerns regarding the management of infectious diseases in the care home, I should contact my manager, whom will then seek professional advice. Members of staff must always observe the health and safety policy, and other policies specific to a work activity must also be followed.
|1.2 Explain employers’ responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection|
All health and social care employers have a responsibility to provide employees with information on such policies, as well as ensure all employees receive sufficient training where necessary. Employers also have a responsibility, to provide proper PPE (personal protective equipment) to all members of staff, and this should be free of charge.
|2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection|
The current legislations and regulatory body standards relevant to the prevention and control of infection are:
Legislation, regulations and guidance that govern infection prevention and control are:
- Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, Management of Health and Safety at Work Act (amended 1994),
- The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984,
- Food Safety Act 1990,
- COSHH 2002,
- RIDDOR 1995,
- The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulation 1988,
- The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations (Department of Health 1995),
- The Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991,
- Health Protection Agency Bill,
- Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005,
- NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) Guidelines.
|2.2 Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection|
The following local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The Public Health (control of disease) Act 1984, Social Care Act, the NICE guidelines and company policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control. In our care home policy for example, it is clearly states that any member of staff, knowingly having an infectious, must have clearance from their G.P or seek guidance from manager, before returning to work.
|3.1 Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection|
Procedures and systems relevant to the prevention of control infection are; following company’s policies and procedures which relate to correct hand washing, wearing correct PPE for example gloves, aprons and protective clothing, the correct disposal of waste, for example and using the correct cleaning equipment when cleaning spillages, surfaces, equipment
|3.2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation|
The outbreak of an infection can have a very large impact on both the individual and the organisation, and in some cases, can prove fatal, for example in the case of an outbreak of MRSA, which is resistant to most antibiotics. The organisation can lose money if staff are off sick, and will need to pay to cover these staff illnesses. The organisation could also be fined, if it is discovered that they did not comply with the law, and this could also damage their reputation.
|4.1 Define the term ‘risk’|
Risk means the possibility of suffering injury, harm or loss or being exposed to hazardous and dangerous situations.
|4.2 Outline potential risks of infection within workplace|
There are several situations in the workplace, that can pose potential risks of infection. For example, Care workers encounter body fluids on a regular basis, they handle contaminated waste, clean bathrooms, dispose of clinical waste, all of which exposes them to pathogens. If these workers do not observe strict infection control procedures, then there will always be the risk of infection.
|4.3 Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment|
There are five main stages involved in carrying out risk assessment. First you must identify the hazard, then evaluate the risk as to who might be harmed, and how, you then need to take precaution to minimize the hazard, the risk should then be reviewed to see how effective it has been managed, then the finding recorded and circulated within the organisation, so that everyone will know how to control the risk.
|4.4 Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment
It is very important to carry out a risk assessment, to make sure no one comes to harm or become ill, as this can impact negatively on lives and businesses. Staff and residents can become ill and end up dying, company can be faced with large insurance pay-outs and court costs. Risk assessment should then be done properly for financial, legal and ethical reasons
|5.2 Describe different types of PPE|
The most commonly used types of P.P.Es are gloves and aprons. There are different types of gloves being used, like latex (used for personal care), vinyl (the blue gloves used for handling food), nitrile (used for cleaning). Uniforms or clothing are protected by wearing disposable plastic aprons over them, (white aprons for personal care and blue for handling food).
Uniforms must not be worn outside of work, and should be (washed by themselves), on a regular basis. P.P.E are used to stop pathogens from being transferred from individual to individual, and stops the spread of infection.
|5.3 Explain the reasons for use of PPE|
The reasons for using the different types of P.P.E are as follows; gloves are worn to protect hands, aprons to protect skin and clothing, respirators and mask to protect respiratory tract from air-borne diseases, googles to protect the eyes and face shields to protect face, mouth eyes and nose.
|5.4 State current relevant regulations and legalisations relating to PPE|
The current relevant regulations and legislations relating to P.P.E states that:
- Employees has a responsibility to use P.P.E in the correct way, as instructed by the employer.
- Employees must check P.P.E before and after use, and to report any damage
- Take precautions when using chemicals substances.
|5.5 Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PP|
The employee has a responsibility to protect their own, others, as well as their colleagues’ safety in the work setting. They also need to report any risks or hazard identified in the work-place, to management. Employees also need to participate in any training provided by the employer, concerning the use and maintenance of P.P.E, and to Use P.P.E according to instructions.
|5.6 Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE|
The employer has a responsibility to provide the relevant P.P.E to all staff, so that the can carry out their duties effectively, and this should be provided free of charge. Arrangements should also be put in place by employer for safe storage of P.P.E, and these should be made available when needed. Employer also need to provide staff with adequate training on proper use of P.P.E.
|5.7 Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE|
|Hands need to be washed and dried before putting on apron and gloves. The straps of the apron need to be placed around the neck and waist and securely fastened. When removing a used apron, you need to pull at the neck and waist straps, and avoid them falling to the ground, it should then be rolled into a ball, in your gloved hand, and placed into a yellow bin bag, along with glove. It is important to avoid touching any surface when removing P.P.E, and these should always be changed after every task, to avoid cross contamination.
5.8 Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE
Clinical waste should be put in a yellow bag and when this is 75% full, it should be securely tied and placed in a (locked) yellow bin. If the bag drips onto your skin or clothing, they should be washed thoroughly.
Waste containers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, and should have bio-hazard labelling.
6.1 Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene.
Key principles of good personal hygiene are; having a regular bath to prevent the spread of and infection and stopping body odour, washing hands after every task to prevent cross infection, keeping long hair tied back or covered especially when working in the kitchen, wearing of clean clothing and uniform to prevent spread of infection, not to wear jewellery at work, as these can harbour microbes, and keeping nails clean and well-trimmed.
|6.3 Describe the correct sequence for hand washing|
The correct sequence for hand washing is as follows:
- Remove any jewellery like watches or rings
- Turn tap on and adjust temperature
- Wet hands
- Apply soap preferably from a dispenser
- Lather soap on palm, between fingers, back of hands and interlocking thumbs and around wrist (Rub soap into all areas)
- Rinse under running water to remove soap
- Dry hand using disposable paper towel.
|6.4 Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out|
Hand washing should be carried out before and after every task, to prevent the spread of infection. It is important to make sure this happens, especially when you are toileting, providing personal care, handling waste or working in the kitchen.
|6.5 Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing|
The types of product that should be used for hand washing are; soap, alcohol based hand rubs and antiseptic gels. In communal areas, it is best to use liquid soap dispenser, as it prevents direct contact with the surface of the soap, therefore preventing cross contaminating. Where the risk of infection is very high, antiseptic gels are used to destroy the microbes. Alcohol based hand rubs are also used as additional protection against the spread of microbes.
6.6 Describe correct procedures that relates to skin care
The skin is the organ coming most in contact with microbes, and chemicals so we need to take very good care of it. If the skin is not cared for properly, it will become dry and develop cracks, through which microbes can then enter our bodies. Hand cream needs to be applied to skin regularly, as this helps to keep the skin moist, and prevent cracks, and therefore infections.